European Commission (EC)

Commission européenne
Comisión Europea
Europäische Kommission
Comissão Européia
Commissione Europea
Europese Commissie
Europeiska Kommissionen
Europa-Kommissionen
Euroopan Komissio
Evropaiki Epitropi
An Coimisiún Eorpach
Evropska Komise
Európska Komisia
Európai Bizottsag
Komisja Europejska
Evropska Komisija
Euroopa Komisjon
Eiropas Komisija
Europos Komisija
Ill-Kummissjoni Ewropea
Europska Komisija
Comisia Europeana

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Contact Details

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History

25 Aug 1952, with the name 'High Authority', as an executive body of European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) created under the Treaty Establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (Treaty of Paris). The twin treaties - Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community (Treaty of Rome) and Treaty Establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (Treaty of Rome) or 'Rome Treaties', in force from 1 Jan 1958 establishing the European Economic Community (EEC), subsequently becoming European Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) - also set up Commissions for each of the new Communities. The present Commission came into existence as a single entity, with full legal title Commission of the European Communities (CEC) -- Commission des Communautés européennes (CCE) -- Comisión de las Comunidades Europeas -- Kommission der Europäischen Gemeinschaften -- Comissão das Comunidades Européias -- Commissione delle Comunità Europee -- Commissie van de Europese Gemeenschappen -- Kommissionen for de Europaeiske Faellesskaber -- Epitropi ton Evropaikon Kinotiton, July 1967, when the 'Merger' Treaty of 8 Apr 1965 came into force, since when it functioned a single organ common to the three, and then two, European Communities. The ECSC ceased to exist in July 2002, following expiration of the Paris Treaty when European Community became responsible for the steel sector.

The Single European Act (SEA) was signed Feb 1986, and ratified by member parliaments by 31 Mar 1987. It came into force 1 July 1987, amending and complementing the Paris and Rome Treaties. As well as covering social, economic and monetary cooperation and measures to make the Community more effective and democratic, it treated the institutionalization of foreign policy cooperation within European Political Cooperation (EPC).

The Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty) was signed on 7 Feb 1992; the Commission's current title was formally adopted by the Council of Ministers on 9 Nov 1993. The Maastricht Treaty expanded the former concept of the European Communities (EC) by making it the first pillar of the European Union (EU) and also replaced the title of the 'Council of the European Communities' by 'Council of the European Union' and of the 'European Economic Community (EEC)' of the Treaty of Rome by the 'European Community', which title may be seen as officially referring to the old EEC only. Under the Treaty, Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP / PESC), deriving from EPC, became the second pillar of the Union; while Cooperation in the Field of Justice and Home Affairs (CJHA) (interior policy) is the third pillar.

The Maastricht Treaty confirmed the powers of the Commission conferred upon it by previous treaties and acts. It is to be called upon for advice by the Council when considering the request on any country for membership of the European Union.

The European Union was recognized as a legal entity by Treaty of Amsterdam, the successor to the Maastricht treaty, signed 2 Oct 1997. Within the single institutional framework of the Union, the Commission is responsible, with the Council, for ensuring consistency. Its composition and mode of operation were revised by the Nice Treaty, signed 26 Feb 2001, Nice, which came into effect 1 Feb 2003. Further revisions, especially regarding enlargement, were formalized in the Treaty of Accession, also known as Treaty of Athens, signed 16 Apr 2003, Athens, which entered into force with the accession of 10 new member states on 1 May 2004.

The Treaty of Lisbon, which came into force 1 Dec 2009, gave further power to the European Union and officially succeeded the European Community, changing the title of the Treaty of Rome to Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).

Aims

As the European Union's executive body: propose legislation which is then adopted by co-legislators, the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers; enforce European law - where necessary with the help of the Court of Justice of the EU; set objectives and priorities for action, outlined yearly in the Commission Work Programme and work towards delivering them; manage and implement EU policies and the budget; represent the Union outside Europe.

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Activities

Directorates-General: draft laws, but proposals become official only once the College of Commissioners adopts them; manage funding initiatives at EU level, and carry out public consultations and communication activities. The Commission also administers several executive agencies to help manage EU programmes. Overview of EU activities in all areas through which the Commission administers programmes and projects:

 • Agriculture, fisheries and foods;

 • Business;

 • Climate action;

 • Cross-cutting policies;

 • Culture, education and youth;

 • Economy, finance and tax;

 • Employment and social rights;

 • Energy and natural resources;

 • Environment, consumers and health;

 • External relations and foreign affairs;

 • Justice, home affairs and citizens' rights;

 • Regions and local development;

 • Science and technology;

 • EU explained;

 • Transport and travel.

Through the above, cooperates with and on:

 • Euratom Supply Agency (ESA);

 • Natura 2000 Network;

 • European Economic Interest Grouping (EEIG);

 • European Crime Prevention Network (EUCPN);

 • EUREKA Organization;

 • European Instrument for Democracy and for Human Rights (EIDHR);

 • European Environment Agency (EEA);

 • European Investment Bank (EIB);

 • Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU);

 • European Central Bank (ECB);

 • European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU);

 • European Consumer Consultative Group (ECCG);

 • Committee of Permanent Representatives to the European Union (COREPER);

 • EU Customs Union;

 • Committee of the Regions (CoR);

 • European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST);

 • European University Institute (EUI);

 • National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARIC);

 • Board of Governors of the European Schools;

 • European Ombudsman.

The European Commission allocates part of the EU budget to companies and organisations in the form of calls for tender, grants or funds and other financing programmes. With a budget of euro 454,000 million (2014-2020), the European structural and investment funds (ESIFs) are the European Union's main investment policy tool: European Regional Development Fund (ERDF); European Social Fund (ESF); Cohesion Fund; European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD); European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF).

Structure

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Languages

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Staff

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Financing

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Relations with Inter-Governmental Organizations

Relations with 99 inter-governmental organizations.
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Relations with Non-Governmental Organizations

Relations with 7 non-governmental organizations.
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Publications

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Members

Members in 34 countries
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Type I Classification

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Type II Classification

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UIA Org ID

E2442

Last News Received

2017
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