Research on international civil society is conducted at the UIA in order to inform debates on strategies for a better world order. However, it is our opinion that to enrich these debates in more profound ways, we do not simply need new content or factual insight, but instead new ways of presenting and conceptualizing these debates and ideas. Therefore, the UIA has pioneered research into alternative means of conceptualizing information, networks and relationships, and strategies or philosophies for action. This research has followed two main but inter-related strands: experiments with non-textual visualization or sonorification of information; and the presentation of complex dialogue and strategy through patterns and metaphor, to reframe organizations, issues and policies. The challenges of visualization and metaphor are closely related through visual metaphor appropriate to enhanced comprehension.
Beyond text: visualization, metaphor, logos, virtual reality and sound
Traditionally all information produced by the UIA has taken textual form, partly due to lack of resources, but also due to lack of adequate software to manipulate images or to generate meaningful graphics from UIA data.
Anthony Judge, former Director of Communication and Research of the UIA, had a long-term interest in information visualization. As early as in 1971, he produced a 16mm film (now in electronic format) called Visualization of Organization which is about the work of the UIA in this field.
UIA Initiatives Moving Beyond the Text Constraint
|1997||Publication of World Guide to Logotypes, Emblems and Trademarks of International Organizations, where the pictorial side of international organizations was presented for the first time. See also the logotypes browsing tool on the Yearbook Online. (Note: non-subscribers will have access to a trimmed down version of the organization's profile, while the more complete organization profiles still remain accessible to paying subscribers. For information on how to subscribe, please contact Brill, our publisher.)|
|Experiments with virtual reality displays in three dimensions, as a way of improving comprehension of complex systems of linkages between organizations and between problems.|
|1999||These experiments were integrated with the online version of UIA databases to provide users with:
|For detailed information about these experiments, see Experiments in multi-media visualizations.|
|2008||The UIA began to offer the Keynote Listening service which is a tool facilitating understanding and inspiring participant engagement during conferences by representing information in alternative visual ways.|
|2009||The UIA introduced Live statistical widgets beta which are illustrations (visualizations, graphs, maps, tables, etc.) using 'live' statistical data on global civil society networks, as produced by the UIA. Widgets, when embedded on a web page, dynamically reflect changing data as the data is updated.|
Displaying complexes of problems, strategies, values and organizations
The UIA is faced with a major challenge of how to provide greater insight into complex networks of relationships amongst international organizations, world problems, strategies in response to them, human development and human values.
The multi-media experiments described below are seen in part as the exploration of visual metaphor to offer new insights and improve comprehension of these complex systems. Experiments with sound are in part based on the recognition that in the search for harmony in global society, there is some merit in exploring the extensive and well-articulated understandings of musical harmony.
Extensive databases are maintained on each of these sets of entities. There are (hyper)links between the entities in each set, and between entities in different sets. In the online form of these databases, users have access to several different kinds of on-going experiment (click on the titles to view details):
Network mapping facility
Relationships are presented as lines between nodes. The nodes provide hyperlink access to text profiles or further maps. All the displays are generated directly in response to user request, by clicking on the map logo, and are self-organizing. The highly dynamic map displays can be radically manipulated and reconfigured by the user. The display technique is based on a Java applet developed by Gerald de Jong (Beautiful Code BV). A three-minute movie demonstrating the possibilities of the spring map technique in relation to the UIA databases has been prepared as part of UIA's project Ecolynx funded by the European Commission's Info2000 Programme (1997-2000). It can be accessed in either QuickTime (highest quality) or RealAudio format via the Ecolynx website. For a detailed explanation of how to use the maps, see Interactive Hyperlink Map. Further presentations are available by visiting the Gallery of network visualizations.
Based on the assertion that humans respond to graphical patterns up to one thousand times faster than numeric or character sets, NetMap takes data from one or more sources, identifies any associations between data elements, and turns the entire data set into a colour coded graphical "map" of data inter-relationships. This allows the user to analyse visual representations of the data relationships starting with a holistic, yet drillable view. Watch a promotional QuickTime movie demonstrating the use of NetMap or see results of NetMap analysis of some of the UIA databases in the slide show below:
This experiment is an effort to make use of a somewhat unique tensegrity structure displayed through virtual reality (viewable through freely available browser plug-ins). Individual entities (eg problems or strategies) are associated with the struts in such a structure. The aim being to produce a coherent configuration that a user can rotate and explore using the virtual reality plug-in navigational tools. So the structure can be turned, zoomed into, etc. In priciple clicking on an active strut with which a problem (say) is associated will bring up the corresponding text profile. A commentary on the value of this technique is given at Configuring strategic dilemmas in inter-sectoral dialogue.
Through this experiment, software selects a polyhedron onto which relationships from a problem (say) are projected. Each facet thus becomes the interface to another problem. The polyhedron as a whole is thus a configuration of facets representing the problem as it interfaces with related problems. Clicking on the facets should bring up the corresponding text profile. This experiment is based on a similar justification to that based on tensegrity. In the current version, the selection of polyhedron is crude and the colouring is random. The virtual reality browser enables the user to manipulate and explore the structure.
This is a development of the previous experiment in which the user can endeavour to control the way in which the software selects and designs the polyhedron. The user is free to include or exclude particular types of relationship and to colour the corresponding facets differently, as well as selecting a preferred shape. Again clicking on a facet should bring up the text profile. The virtual reality browser enables the user to manipulate and explore the structure.
Note: Users may experience some difficulty and frustration in getting virtual reality browser plug-ins to work correctly. The experiments were done using the earlier (simpler) version of the VRML language (version 1), whereas current browsers work with the later version (version 2).
Using VRML for Overview of World Problems goes into more technical detail about the application of VRML software to mapping networks generated from research associated with the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential. See also Multimedia design tips & tricks.
Academic articles about visualization written by Anthony Judge:
- Documents Relating to Visualization, Presentation, Mapping
- Communication Between Network Visualisation and Music
- Documents relating to Software Innovation and Groupware)
- Documents relating to Culture and Aesthetics
Links to relevant external resources:
This page introduces and explains the applet-based visualization experiments used as interfaces to the databases of the Union of International Associations.
The maps are generated under user control via http://www.uia.be/sites/uia.be/db/db/x.php. There are several pages from which a map may be (re)generated:
- From the search screen, after specifying a keyword (for example "forests" for the database World Problems), and clicking on the map logo against display choice.
- From an index listing, after running a search (for example "forests" for the database World Problems), and clicking on the map logo at the top of the listing
- From a text profile, after running a search and selecting a profile for display (for example "forests" for the database World Problems, then click on "deforestation"), and then click on the map logo against any of the lists of cross-references of different types
The purposes of these self-organizing displays are to create a visual index to show the complexity of relationships between (data) profiles and reveal the data rich domains. The maps are generated directly from the data in response to user requests. Each display is dynamic and continues to organize itself in response to user constraints applied via the mouse. Further improvements to the display are under development in order to offer new insights into the data.
You may experience a variety of problems until you are familiar with this experimental tool:
- In many cases these are due to the number of items requested -- try a smaller selection -- especially if you cause a "server error" or "Applet will not start error"!
- Sometimes the mouse functions do not work -- try restarting your browser (or reboot to reinitialize the applet). Applets can be unpredictable.
- Other errors may be due to defects in the data -- we are working on them!
- Very simple (boring) map, or "No links" to map -- try other keyword(s).
- Display is too dynamic. If it remains unstable after giving it time to settle, then try switching to a smaller selection of nodes.
Some of the displays are exceptionally elegant -- despite the content. Examples include:
|Database||Keywords||Profile||Relationship type||Max #||Scale|
|World problems||discrimination women||Discrimination against women||Narrower||400||25%|
|World problems||poverty||Rural poverty||Aggravated by||350||25%|
|Strategies||unemployment||Reducing unemployment||Facilitated by||350||25%|
|Strategies||air pollution||Reducing air pollution||Facilitated by||300||25%|
Manipulating the map: what you can do with the mouse
You can manipulate the display in a variety of ways using the mouse:
- Temporary label display: Move the cursor over any node and the profile names of all immediately connected nodes will appear temporarily. Tip: if too many are displayed to see a central node label, put the cursor over any node that is only connected to that central node.
- Permanent label display: Move the cursor over a selected node and do ctrl-right-click. You can hide the label by repeating the procedure
- Moving parts of the display: Drag any node to a new position (with the left mouse button); it will stick their temporarily
- Fixing a node in a new position: After moving, use a right-click to fix the node position. The node should change colour. Release it from that position by repeating the procedure (right-click on the node). You can move all the parts into a new configuration which you find meaningful. Note: when you have completed this procedure, consider taking a screen shot for use elsewhere (notably in PowerPoint type displays)
- Display text profile: From any node you can access the corresponding descriptive text profile in the database from which the map was generated. Use shift with left-click and a new browser window will be opened. Exit it to return.
- Display a related map: From any node you can generate a new map based on that node. It is generated in a new brower window. Exit it to return. The map can therefore be used as a visual index. (We are working on ways that you can save a map, after you have manipulated it, and use it as your personal index to our database)
- Use the mouse on the control panel on the left to:
- Hide or show directional arrows (we are working to improve the signficance of the arrow display)
- Hide or show icons (we are planning to associate icons with nodes of particular significance)
- Sounds are gnerated by using mouseover particular icons (we are planning on associating sounds of greater mnemonic significance with particular nodes -- signature tunes?)
- Link type labels can be displayed if desired (a feature only of use in the future, since the display currently is for a single type of relationship anyway)
- Change background: Switch the background for a different impression
Redefining map properties
Below the map display is a range of facilities with which you can experiment. If you do not like the colours, scale, background, line thickness or complexity -- then try changing them:
- Select maximum number of items displayed: You can have simpler maps, or more complex (if there is data to display). Note that the applet has a size limit which we hope to increase. The top line indicates how much the applet has been able to process. If you choose too high a figure, the data may cause the applet to crash.
- Zooming: You can increase the size of the map, effectively moving in. The default is set at 25% which gives a better overview. We aim to improve this feature
- Line colour / thickness: The line colours and thickness can be changed using the pull down menus. Both these features are associated with "rings". The first ring includes the nodes directly connected to the source node (or node cluster). The second ring includes those linked to the first ring, etc. If you are exploring hierarchical relationships, each ring may be one step down the hierarchy (in the case of "narrower" type relationships) or up the hierarchy (in the case of "broader" type relationships)
- Some other defaults:
- Background: Can be set to black or white. Tip: try choosing a line colour as black or white and then toggling between the two backgrounds to show and hide particular types of relationship
- Icons: These can be set on or off.
- Sounds: These can be set to play or not.
Selecting other relationship types
There are three possibilities:
- Same database / Same starting point: You can also force the map to be regenerated using a different set of relationships (if there are any in the data). Check the corresponding check profile if you are unsure whether the starting point will be fruitful.
- Different database / Same starting point: If the map was generated directly from a keyword search, you will be able to switch it to generation from another database using the same keywords.
- Same database / Different starting point: As in the previous case, but you can change the set of keywords, effectively allowing you to use the map display as a search interface.
The applet was developed by Gerald de Jong of Beautiful Code.
VRML browser plug-in: In order to be able to view both live and pre-generated VRML scenes, you have to install Cortona VRML Client that seamlessly plugs into your browser (be it Internet Explorer or Netscape). As many demos are based on VRML 1.0 standard, you will also need to install Cortona VRML 1.0 Converter.
Displays of vicious problem loops
This page introduces several experimental VRML displays available at:
- vrml25.wrl (30 kb) -- multiple
- vrml26.wrl (10kb) -- simple, single colour
- vrml27.wrl (10 kb) -- simple single colour
- vrml52.wrl (22 kb) -- multiple, multicolour, linked to demo
- vrml57.wrl (40 kb) -- multiple, multicolour, with connecting lines, linked to demo
The first of these groups 7 sets of interlocking "vicious problem loops". Numbers 2 and 3 group 2 each. Number 4 displays several sets with each loop in a set coloured differently. Number 5 introduces lines between diferent interlocking sets where the same problem occurs in different loop interlocks. These are generated from the world problems data in the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential.
Each vicious loop has a sequence of from three to five problems aggravating each other in a cycle. Each interlock cluster depicts intersections between such cycles, usually three.
You can place the cursor on individual problems (spheres) in each cluster and the name of the problem will appear (with its identifier in the UIA database). Some spheres are coloured red, you can click on any of these and you will be taken into the corresponding explanatory text in the UIA demo on this website.
Displays of interconnected international organizations
As a very first experiment in displaying information on networks of organizations profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations, we have generated the following:
A series based on the contacts between between 50 and 100 international NGOs in relationship with UNESCO (omitting the contact with UNESCO itself):
- vrml58.wrl (46 kb) -- white background
- vrml60.wrl (59 kb) -- green background
- vrml61.wrl (60 kb) -- blue background
- vrml62.wrl (60 kb) -- yellow background
- vrml64.wrl (51 kb) -- green (dense network)
Some first experiments in displaying direct institutional connections of major organizations:
- vrml67.wrl (47 kb) -- black background -- "fountain" (United Nations)
- vrml81.wrl (61 kb) -- blue background -- sphere (United Nations)
- vrml82.wrl (61 kb) -- blue background -- sphere (European Community)
In #81 and #82, clicking on panels with a ">" in the name should take you direct to the named organization's website. Even in their initial form, these approaches suggest many new possibilities which we will proceed to explore.
A further series of experiments towards a "solar system" model of major institutions:
- vrml100.wrl (10 kb) -- unclickable -- (United Nations)
- vrml101.wrl (61 kb) -- clickable, merged (United Nations)
- vrml102.wrl (61 kb) -- clickable, dispersed (United Nations)
- vrml103.wrl (61 kb) -- clickable, compromise (United Nations)
- vrml107.wrl (29 kb) -- clickable (World Bank Group)
Initiating a new series of experiments (Dec 1997), we have started with a spiral metaphor:
- vrml108.wrl (36 kb) -- clickable (United Nations)
We will post new displays here as seems appropriate. At this point we should emphasize that we are only exploring techniques, rather than ensuring the best solution in any particular case, or ensuring a full display of relevant data. For this reason some of the additional features noted below, may or may not be operational in a particular display.
VRML 2.0 An indication of the possibility with the VRML 2.0 standard is given by one experiment:
- dyna22.wrl (44 kb) -- Presentation of clickable problem loops
The above structures were generated by program directly from our database on world problems. This means that items have not been positioned by manually -- which also means that many can be quickly regenerated. Example #5 seems to indicate a bug, either in our VRML source code or in our Live3D browser. We cannot get the double lines to be drawn as single lines -- any comments?
We are currently improving the quality of the data with regard to vicious problem loops as a means of shifting the level of analysis from individual problems to cycles of problems which may offer more significant opportunities for strategic action.
Much of the data produced by the UIA from information supplied by international organizations profiled in its Yearbook of International Organizations includes details of networks of relationships. These may be between orgnizations, between world problems, between organizational strategies, between values, or between approaches to human development. This is especially clear with the information provided in the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential which cross-references the organizations in the Yearbook.
These relationships are usually extremely complex and difficult to understand. It is clearly difficult to gain any meaningful overview of them through textual description or two-dimensional diagrams. VRML techniques provide an entirely new approach to this challenge by making use of three dimensional visualization and navigational tools.
We will continue to experiment with these VRML displays. Some issues we face are:
- discover better ways of positioning interlock structures in 3D space (we are seeking help from practitioners of "graph theory", although they have relatively little interest in depicting the networks they analyze, notably in 3D)
- structuring the interlocks themselves
- positioning of "narrower" problems of those represented here as spheres
- what makes for a meaningful display ? It is one thing to create displays, it is another to render them meaningful.
- how to use the displays in conjunction with editorial research work on a live database -- where we are essentially engaged in editing complex structures of hyperlinks
- introduction of viewpoints to take advantage of the browser facilities to move to selected viewpoints
- use of a grid system to provide some orientation for navigation
- reducing complexity of objects to improving browser performance (we have used cubes in recent displays)
- jumping between VRML displays
The purpose of this page is to help you create your own lively information maps using our databases.
Natural Creations: Just sit back and let your JAVA map develop in its own way. Occasionally zoom in or out (Page Up or Down) or move Up, Down, Left or Right using the arrow keys (your mouse pointer has to be above the applet area). The natural tensions in the network of springs will position the nodes and eventually come either to rest or to perpetual movement. The structure you will see has not been pre-defined. Sort of natural creation, isn't it?
Colours: When choosing link colours in the drop-down menus below the applet, bear in mind what background colour are you going to use. For example, you should not use yellow springs on white background. You can toggle the background color between black and white using the "Toggle Background" button. Usually, only the first three or four rings will show in the map (depends on the number of them that is displayed -- usually not more than 600).
Spring Lengths: Play with the spring lengths. If you choose lengths that are smaller with each ring (e.g. long, short, very short, very short, ...), your maps will be flower-like, clear to read. If the link lengths are equal (or increasing), you will get a chaotic picture, although not without a certain charm.
Labels: Approaching any node in the map brings up its label. If it happens to be a central node, all children nodes will switch on their labels as well. If you want to keep a label on, press SHIFT + right mouse button (RMB). Increase and decrease the font size to improve readability.
Example: Log in here, then (in the Database Menu) choose the database of World Problems (it will get a green background). Then type "racism" as a keyword in the search bar and press "Submit Query". You will get a list of database profiles about racism. Choose the first one, called simply "Racism", and you will get into that profile. You will see several labels in red that may or may not contain text or links. In order to create a spring map, choose one of the "map" links next to the link labels. Maps of agravating relationships tend to provide the most visually attractive images. For a particular image, select black, gray, gray colours, then medium, short, very short lengths, and 600 links ... and click on the "Redo map" button. In a while you will see a particularly grim spidery visual version of racism... like this one:
Experimental web strategy by the Union of International Associations
Many of the databases offered via the web by the Union of International Associations enable users to represent the relationships between profiles in which they are interested as a dynamic network map of hyperlinks by clicking on the map logo. The user is then free to manipulate the network, increasing and decreasing its complexity, and configuring it in ways that are more meaningful. Progress in developing these facilities is described in a separate note: Interactive Hyperlink Map: Auto-generated, Self-organizing Link Visualization.
This map explored the possibility of attaching simple sound files to each node, allowing the user to trigger them individually by mouse operations. This was seen as the basis for developing an acoustic mnemonic code for structures. Ways of packing sequences of notes into each nodal file were envisaged.
This work was initiated in connection with a 1998-9 contract of the UIA with the European Commission (DG-XIII) on the Information Context of Biodiversity Conservation that has a specific emphasis on innovative uses of multi-media to enhance access to information.
An extensive bibliography of items providing the rationale for this sonification approach was provided by the International Community for Auditory Display. Selected items have been incorporated into the references to the UIA study on Knowledge Gardening through Music: patterns of coherence for future African management as an alternative to Project Logic
A more structured approach to the use of sound to enhance comprehension of complex patterns of information emerged as a result of exploration of use of the Koan software provided freely over the web as a browser plugin by SSEYO (UK). This focuses on the use of generative music seeded by particular (data) patterns and controlled by an extensive array of parameters familiar to musicians. Generative music has the additional advantage of avoiding some of the obvious copyright issues associated with supplying sound over the web. Of special interest is the fact that the amount of data transferred as a pattern to the plugin is normally less than 30k, since the music is generated by the plugin on the user's computer rather than having to be downloaded in its entirety.
From November 1999, ways of integrating sound into the visualization of complex networks is being explored. In order of increasing challenge and significance, these possibilities can be tentatively presented as:
Music unlinked to data or map movement
In this case the music is basically generated in parallel with the network as a form of accompaniment (like in the silent movies). The issue here is whether any such accompaniment can usefully enhance comprehension of the map by judicious aesthetic choices, or whether it is purely decorative and "for effect" -- especially if the user is free to modify the music at will. Rersearch elsewhere has shown that background music can assist in the absorption/retention of information. i.e. even audio at this simple level, can be of real benefit, assuming it is suitably chosen.
Music driven by data (but unlinked to any map movement)
In this mode, data from which the map is generated is also used to affect or determine the "music". The music is therefore generated from the data and thus to some degree encodes the complexity represented visually in the accompanying map. The challenge here is to determine useful ways to translate the map coding into the patterns through which the music is generated. The question is the degree to which this musical encoding is meaningful in new ways, especially since it does not affect visually the dynamics of the map to which the user is exposed. In its more challenging forms, this mode would give rise to "music" unique to each map. How musical or meaningful it would be could be a challenge for the software facility and the user's mastery of its features. Particular patterns of sounds, or musical sequences, could be associated with the nodes of the map to be triggered by mouse operations.
Map movement driven by music (through common data)
In this mode, the data from which the map is generated is also used to trigger dynamics in the map, namely movements of particular nodes in response to particular musical notes and/or instruments. The map therefore moves in rhythm to the music. Again the question arises as to the degree to which this is simply an intriguing effect, as opposed to enhancing any form of comprehension of what the map (and the music) then represent.
Music driven by map movement (through common data)
In this mode, the user's manipulation of the map has effects on the pattern of sound. This could be merely a trivial effect to accompany normal mouse manipulation of the map. However it is possible that a user might benefit from this effect in unsuspected ways.
Map movement driven interactively by music (AND vice versa)
This mode essentially combines the two previous modes. The key here is the centre of gravity of control. Does user movement of the map take greater or lesser precedence over the music driving that movement on the basis of the data.
Map movement driven via user (micro) input
This mode explores the use of external user sound input as a means of reconfiguring the map interactively, in effect by playing to it -- "taming the beast". Emphasis in this case is on the musical ability of the user in playing sounds that entrain the map into new patterns or sequences of patterns. Again the question, arises as to the extent this is more than an intriguing toy, and whether it offers new opportunities for comprehending and working with complex patterns.
Strategic coordination (possibilities to be explored)
It is at this stage that it becomes possible to explore the use of insights from music to effectively "harmonize" complex patterns of relationships.
As of November 1999, UIA on-line experiments are at Stage 1, verging into Stage 2 in the above schema.
Much of the challenge for the networks of strategies, developed by networks of organizations, in response to networks of problems, based on networks of values, lies in how these are to be coordinated or "harmonized" in some way. The well-explored conventional approach, based on some simplistic consensus, has a relatively poor track record and few prospects for greater efficacity. The dimensions explored by music redefine "consensus" in richer musical terms that offer many more ways to explore relationships between seemingly disparate elements, using both consonant and dissonant features to advantage.
The use of sound is therefore seen as a way of benefitting from insights into harmony that are widely and intuitively understood. Hopefully it will also help to reframe strategic responses to complex issues in ways to which younger generations can resonate more optimistically.
DRAFT: 22 November 1999
Tentative possibilities in order of increasing challenge
(UIA is currently exploring 1e through 2b)
Map (applet) issues
|1||Music unlinked to data or map movement|
|a||No problem; not required||Movement unconditioned by music||.||A single (generative) music file attached to a whole site|
|b||No problem; not required||Movement unconditioned by music||.||A single (generative) music file attached to a static page|
|c||No problem; but not very interesting if the selection is purely an aesthetic choice, like in the silent movies, rather than one directly determined by the data||Movement unconditioned by music||.||A (generative) music file attached to a dynamic page but selected from a library according to the characteristics of the data on that page|
|d||No problem, less interesting, and back to aesthetic choices||Movement unconditioned by music; but user can modify music associated with map by clicking on map nodes to switch to an alternative musical piece||Use map nodes as hotspots. Could use sound files that it is already possible to associate with map nodes||(Generative) music files from a library associated dynamically with different schematic features on the page (in our case hot spots in an applet spring map display of the data). WAV files could be used (149), even one per voice.|
|e||Music adjusted experimentally by user||Movement unconditioned by music; but user can modify music associated with map by clcking on form buttons||As above but subject to user modification (pressing buttons, etc).|
Parameters of interest include: Patches, Drums, Voice types (37, 77), Mutation, Phrase (length, gaps: 119), Sustain (Damper/hold: 83, 142), Reverb (91), Chorus (83), Tempo (142), Patch change (113), Muting / Soloing (31, 78), Scale Rule (138)
|f||User choice of piece||As above||Use SELECT in form to choose a musical piece that will start playing when form is (re)submitted. Typically a .skd file.||User selects amongst alternative musical pieces to play and is then free to modify as above|
|2||Music driven by data (but unlinked to any map movement)|
|a||Simple data patterning to condition music||Parameters associated with nodes (but not attached to applet data) are used to condition music||Parameters passed as above.||As above but such that parameters are specified initially by cgi to modify playing of a set musical piece brought up with any map|
|b||Data patterns music||As above; but parameters are used as basis of pattern for generated music||An algorithm (based on node relationships) is used to define ("seed") Patterns (115) with the FixedPattern Voice type, and Meter and Mutation parameters (21). Alternative patterns (based on different algorithms) might be accessible from a Pattern List/Group (71) for user selection. Map relationships might be (pre)defined in terms of a particular Follow Strategy (89), allocation of Patches to Voices, Patch change (113), Voice rules (22), Forcing a Voice to play (31)||As above, but based on a pattern defined by the data|
|3||Map movement driven by music (through common data)|
Some note (or other values) need to be attached by the cgi as subparameters to the node specifying params in the applet. In effect the musical note substitutes for a mouse drag (and release) of a certain amount.
|Music associated with the page conditions differential movements of the elements of the spring map with which certain values have been associated. The map responds dynamically to the music.|
|4||Music driven by map movement (through common data)|
|a||Data driven "harp"||Possibility of having an invisible grid over the applet display, where the grid lines are effectively strings capable of sounding different notes. The elements of the spring map play these strings/notes when they cross them as they continue to move.||This would be implemented a similar manner to the above. Here is an example:|
// Force voice #3 in playing file to play a specific note, immediately, for a duration of one beat. We do this by simply by playing a pattern of only one note duration.
lNote = "3";
// The note pitch, assigned from the applet in some manner: KoanObj.KoanFunction("KoanForcePattern", 0, 2, "<60 " + lNote +">)
|b||User modfication of data driven "harp"||.||This would again be achieved similarly to the above. Here is the example that would achieve this:|
// Set the instrument for voice #2 to be e.g. MIDI church organ. Note, this could of course instead use e.g. a MP3 sample by using the appropriate parameter syntax.
lInstrument = "20"; KoanObj.KoanObjectParameterSet(0, "Voice", 2, "Patch", lInstrument)
// ... and now play the required note.
lNote = "3"; // Note pitch assigned from the applet in some manner. KoanObj.KoanFunction("KoanForcePattern", 0, 2, "<60 " + lNote + ">)
|As above, where the user can change the notes or instruments associated with particular grid strings, and the separation of the strings in the grid.|
|5||Map movement driven interactively by music (AND vice versa)|
// Force voice #2 in playing file to play a specified note sequence, immediately. NB : the pattern string is in Koan Pattern parameter format, and defines both note durations and pitches:
KoanObj.KoanFunction("KoanForcePattern", 0, 2, "<60 1 60 2 60 3 30 4 30 5">)
|Parameters associated with hotspots in a data display that can trigger playing of different sound sequences, where the parameters are defined in the cgi script by the characteristics of the data|
|6||Map movement driven via user (micro) input|
|a||"Whistling to the map"||As above, except the user plays external music which conditions the movement (perhaps using something like the Koan freemixer) or even via microphone||Again, now that we have illustrated the underlying mechanism, this is a matter of your determining an appropriate algorithm to choose which you then use to drive the KoanAPI appropriately.||.|
|b||"Musical command language"||Map extension / reduction through musical commands substituting for current applet keystroke commands||.||.|
|7||Strategic coordination (possibilities to be explored)|
|c||"Harmonization"||.||.||Use of alternative rules of harmony to explore challenges of coordination|