European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom)

Communauté européenne de l'énergie atomique
Comunidad Europea de Energia Atómica
Europäische Atomgemeinschaft
Comunidade Européia de Energia Atómica
Comunità Europea dell'Energia Atomica
Europese Gemeenschap voor Atoomenergie
Europaeiske Atomenergiefaellesskab
Evropaiki Kinotita Atomikis Energias

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History

Established 1 Jan 1958, Brussels (Belgium), on coming into force of the Treaty Establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (Treaty of Rome), signed 25 Mar 1957, following a conference in June 1955, Messina (Italy), of the then 6 member countries of European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) - Belgium, France, Germany FR, Italy, Luxembourg and Netherlands. The Rome Treaty was ratified by parliaments of member states between 5 July 1957 and 4 Dec 1957. The other Treaty of Rome, since 2009 called Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), originally setting up the European Economic Community (EEC) - now known as the European Community - was signed, ratified and came into force at the same time. Euratom, also known as EAEC, thus traces its origins to the Treaty Establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (Treaty of Paris), signed 18 Apr 1951, creating the European Coal and Steel Community. The ECSC ceased to exist in July 2002, following expiration of the Paris Treaty.

Following signature on 7 Feb 1992, of Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty), Euratom comes within the framework of the European Union (EU), and is one of the three bodies that make up the European Communities (EC), the Union's first pillar. Since Treaty of Lisbon came into force, 1 Dec 2009, activities taken over by European Commission (EC) with 'Community' itself no longer existing and Euratom only referred to the Treaty.

Aims

Further cooperation within the European Union in the field of research; protect the public by establishing common safety standards; ensure an adequate and equitable supply of ores and nuclear fuel; monitor the peaceful use of nuclear material; cooperate with other countries and international organizations; protect the health of those working in the sector and of the public at large.

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Activities

As an integral part, with the EC and the ECSC, of the European Communities and now of the European Union, Euratom executes its activities under multi-annual programmes, drawn up by unanimous vote of the Council of Ministers. One important role is in cooperation with third countries and international organizations. A 'verification agreement' with IAEA under which IAEA safeguards are applied within the framework of Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). together with those of Euratom in non-nuclear weapon states of the EU, was signed in 1973 and came into force in 1977. This was expanded under a further 'partnership agreement', signed 28 Apr 1992, which improves implementation of the verification agreement. Moreover trilateral agreements among International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Euratom and nuclear weapon states of the EU (France and UK) represent voluntary offers to accept IAEA safeguards on their territory Ratification is currently underway of additional protocols to the safeguards agreements with the IAEA (IAEA's) Strengthened Safeguards System. Euratom has established cooperation agreements with the USA, Canada, Australia and Argentina; it also cooperates in research projects of Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It is able, through 'Euratom Loans' to contribute to investment projects for the industrial production of electricity in nuclear power stations and for industrial fuel cycle installations.

Research and training projects are implemented by the Community's Joint Research Centre, comprising research establishments at Ispra (Italy), Karlsruhe (Germany), Mol (Belgium) and Petten (Netherlands), notably by Institute for Transuranium Elements (Karlsruhe ITU). The Ispra Centre acts as permanent secretariat of European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA). A coordinating committee on materials-testing reactors and their ancillary installations was set up on 1 Apr 1974. Fusion research activities managed by European Consortium for the Development of Fusion Energy (EUROfusion). It is party to and assists in conducting ITER International Fusion Energy Organization (ITER Organization).

Other activities include: assuring an adequate supply of nuclear materials, through Euratom Supply Agency (ESA); insurance of a common market in nuclear materials; eliminating internal import and export duties on nuclear products; operation of an independent safeguard system; implementation and supervision of health protection standards; forecasting energy consumption; training scientists and technicians.

Chapter III of the Euratom Treaty covers protection of health against radiation, whatever its origin. Following the Chernobyl accident, 26 Apr 1986, permanent reorientation or strengthening of a range of activities in the field of safety have been brought about in accordance with provisions of the Euratom Treaty. They include: protection of health against ionizing radiation; study of the impact of radioactivity on the environment; technological safety of nuclear installations; scientific research. Télémanipulation dans les environnements nucléaires dangereux et perturbés (TELEMAN Programme) was one response to this.

Structure

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Languages

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Staff

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Financing

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Relations with Inter-Governmental Organizations

Relations with 14 inter-governmental organizations.
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Relations with Non-Governmental Organizations

Relations with 3 non-governmental organizations.
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Members

Members in 28 countries
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Type I Classification

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Type II Classification

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UIA Org ID

D0666

Last News Received

20131120p
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